Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 11
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

 
Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 11.1

   main()
{
int i=1;
while (i<=5)
{
printf("%d",i);
if (i>2)
goto here;
i++;
}
}
fun()
{
here:
printf("PP");
}

Answer: Compiler error: Undefined label ‘here’ in function main

Explanation: Labels have functions scope, in other words The scope of the labels is limited to functions . The label ‘here’ is available in function fun() Hence it is not visible in function main.

C aptitude 11.2

   main()
{
static char names[5][20]={"pascal","ada","cobol","fortran","perl"};
int i;
char *t;
t=names[3];
names[3]=names[4];
names[4]=t;
for (i=0;i<=4;i++)
printf("%s",names[i]);
}

Answer: Compiler error: Lvalue required in function main

Explanation:Array names are pointer constants. So it cannot be modified.

C aptitude 11.3

    void main()
{
int i=5;
printf("%d",i++ + ++i);
}

Answer: Output Cannot be predicted exactly.

Explanation: Side effects are involved in the evaluation of i

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 10
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 10.1

  void main()
{
char far *farther,*farthest;

printf("%d..%d",sizeof(farther),sizeof(farthest));

}

Answer: 4..2

Explanation: the second pointer is of char type and not a far pointer

C aptitude 10.2

    main()
{
int i=400,j=300;
printf("%d..%d");
}

Answer: 400..300

Explanation:printf takes the values of the first two assignments of the program. Any number of printf’s may be given. All of them take only the first two values. If more number of assignments given in the program, then printf will take garbage values.

C aptitude 10.3

    main()
{
char *p;
p="Hello";
printf("%cn",*&*p);
}

Answer: H

Explanation: * is a dereference operator & is a reference operator. They can be applied any number of times provided it is meaningful. Here p points to the first character in the string “Hello”. *p dereferences it and so its value is H. Again & references it to an address and * dereferences it to the value H.

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 9
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 9.1

  main()
{
printf("%p",main);
}


Answer: Some address will be printed.

Explanation: Function names are just addresses (just like array names are addresses). main() is also a function. So the address of function main will be printed. %p in printf specifies that the argument is an address. They are printed as hexadecimal numbers.

C aptitude 9.2

 main()
{
clrscr();
}
clrscr();

Answer: No output/error

Explanation: The first clrscr() occurs inside a function. So it becomes a function call. In the second clrscr(); is a function declaration (because it is not inside any function).

C aptitude 9.3

   enum colors {BLACK,BLUE,GREEN}
main()
{

printf("%d..%d..%d",BLACK,BLUE,GREEN);

return(1);
}

Answer: 0..1..2

Explanation: enum assigns numbers starting from 0, if not explicitly defined.

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K & R C Chapter 7 Exercise Solutions.

We have already provided solutions to all the exercises in the bookC Programming Language (2nd Edition) popularly known as K & R C book.

In this blog post I will give links to all the exercises from Chapter 7 of the book for easy reference.

Chapter 7: Input and Output

  1. Exercise 7-1. Write a program that converts upper case to lower or lower case to upper, depending on the name it is invoked with, as found in argv[0].
    Solution to Exercise 7-1.
  2. Exercise 7-2.Write a program that will print arbitrary input in a sensible way. As a minimum, it should print non-graphic characters in octal or hexadecimal according to local custom, and break long text lines.
    Solution to Exercise 7-2.
  3. Exercise 7-3.Revise minprintf to handle more of the facilities of printf .
    Solution to Exercise 7-3.
  4. Exercise 7-4. Write a private version of scanf analogous to minprintf from the previous section.
    Solution to Exercise 7-4.
  5. Exercise 7-5. Rewrite the postfix calculator of Chapter 4 to use scanf and/or sscanf to do the input and number conversion.
    Solution to Exercise 7-5.
  6. Exercise 7-6. Write a program to compare two files, printing the first line where they differ.
    Solution to Exercise 7-6.
  7. Exercise 7-7. Modify the pattern finding program of Chapter 5 to take its input from a set of named files or, if no files are named as arguments, from the standard input. Should the file name be printed when a matching line is found?
    Solution to Exercise 7-7.
  8. Exercise 7-8. Write a program to print a set of files, starting each new one on a new page, with a title and a running page count for each file.
    Solution to Exercise 7-8.
  9. Exercise 7-9. Functions like isupper can be implemented to save space or to save time. Explore both possibilities.
    Solution to Exercise 7-9.
You can purchase the book from here or here.

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 8
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 8.1

  main()
{
char *p="hai friends",*p1;
p1=p;
while(*p!='') ++*p++;
printf("%s %s",p,p1);
}


Answer:ibj!gsjfoet

Explanation: ++*p++ will be parse in the given order Ø *p that is value at the location currently pointed by p will be taken Ø ++*p the retrieved value will be incremented Ø when ; is encountered the location will be incremented that is p++ will be executed Hence, in the while loop initial value pointed by p is ‘h’, which is changed to ‘i’ by executing ++*p and pointer moves to point, ‘a’ which is similarly changed to ‘b’ and so on. Similarly blank space is converted to ‘!’. Thus, we obtain value in p becomes “ibj!gsjfoet” and since p reaches ‘’ and p1 points to p thus p1doesnot print anything.

C aptitude 8.2

  #define a 10
main()
{
#define a 50
printf("%d",a);
}

Answer:50

Explanation:The preprocessor directives can be redefined anywhere in the program. So the most recently assigned value will be taken.

C aptitude 8.3

    #define clrscr() 100
main()
{
clrscr();
printf("%dn",clrscr());
}

Answer:100

Explanation: Preprocessor executes as a seperate pass before the execution of the compiler. So textual replacement of clrscr() to 100 occurs.The input program to compiler looks like this :
main()
{
100;
 printf(“%dn”,100);
}
 Note: 100; is an executable statement but with no action. So it doesn’t give any problem

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 7
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 7.1

  main()
{
printf("nab");
printf("bsi");
printf("rha");
}

Answer: hai

Explanation: n – newline b – backspace r – linefeed

C aptitude 7.2

  main()
{
int i=5;
printf("%d%d%d%d%d%d",i++,i--,++i,--i,i);
}

Answer:45545

Explanation:The arguments in a function call are pushed into the stack from left to right. The evaluation is by popping out from the stack. and the evaluation is from right to left, hence the result.

C aptitude 7.3

    #define square(x) x*x
main()
{
int i;
i = 64/square(4);
printf("%d",i);
}

Answer:64

Explanation: the macro call square(4) will substituted by 4*4 so the expression becomes i = 64/4*4 . Since / and * has equal priority the expression will be evaluated as (64/4)*4 i.e. 16*4 = 64

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 6
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 6.1

   
main()
{
int a[2][2][2] = { {10,2,3,4}, {5,6,7,8} };
int *p,*q;
p=&a[2][2][2];
*q=***a;
printf("%d----%d",*p,*q);
}

Answer: SomeGarbageValue—1

Explanation: p=&a[2][2][2] you declare only two 2D arrays, but you are trying to access the third 2D(which you are not declared) it will print garbage values. *q=***a starting address of a is assigned integer pointer. Now q is pointing to starting address of a. If you print *q, it will print first element of 3D array.

C aptitude 6.2

 
main()
{
struct xx
{
int x=3;
char name[]="hello";
};
struct xx *s;
printf("%d",s->x);
printf("%s",s->name);
}


Answer:Compiler Error

Explanation:You should not initialize variables in declaration

C aptitude 6.3

      
main()
{
struct xx
{
int x;
struct yy
{
char s;
struct xx *p;
};
struct yy *q;
};
}

Answer:Compiler Error

Explanation: The structure yy is nested within structure xx. Hence, the elements are of yy are to be accessed through the instance of structure xx, which needs an instance of yy to be known. If the instance is created after defining the structure the compiler will not know about the instance relative to xx. Hence for nested structure yy you have to declare member.

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation.

C Aptitude 5
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 5.1

    #define int char
main()
{
int i=65;
printf("sizeof(i)=%d",sizeof(i));
}

Answer: sizeof(i)=1

Explanation: Since the #define replaces the string int by the macro char

C aptitude 5.2

main()
{
int i=10;
i=!i>14;
Printf ("i=%d",i);
}


Answer:i=0

Explanation:In the expression !i>14 , NOT (!) operator has more precedence than ‘ >’ symbol. ! is a unary logical operator. !i (!10) is 0 (not of true is false). 0>14 is false (zero).

C aptitude 5.3

     #include
main()
{
char s[]={'a','b','c','n','c',''};
char *p,*str,*str1;
p=&s[3];
str=p;
str1=s;
printf("%d",++*p + ++*str1-32);
}

Answer:77

Explanation: p is pointing to character ‘n’. str1 is pointing to character ‘a’ ++*p. “p is pointing to ‘n’ and that is incremented by one.” the ASCII value of ‘n’ is 10, which is then incremented to 11. The value of ++*p is 11. ++*str1, str1 is pointing to ‘a’ that is incremented by 1 and it becomes ‘b’. ASCII value of ‘b’ is 98. Now performing (11 + 98 – 32), we get 77(“M”); So we get the output 77 :: “M” (Ascii is 77).

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation.

C Aptitude 4
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program. Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 4.1

    main()
{
printf("%x",-1<<4);
}

Answer: fff0

Explanation: -1 is internally represented as all 1’s. When left shifted four times the least significant 4 bits are filled with 0’s.The %x format specifier specifies that the integer value be printed as a hexadecimal value.

C aptitude 4.2

main()
{
char string[]="Hello World";
display(string);
}
void display(char *string)
{
printf("%s",string);
}


Answer:Compiler Error : Type mismatch in redeclaration of function display

Explanation:In third line, when the function display is encountered, the compiler doesn’t know anything about the function display. It assumes the arguments and return types to be integers, (which is the default type). When it sees the actual function display, the arguments and type contradicts with what it has assumed previously. Hence a compile time error occurs.

C aptitude 4.3

   main()
{
int c=- -2;
printf("c=%d",c);
}

Answer:c=2;

Explanation: Here unary minus (or negation) operator is used twice. Same maths rules applies, ie. minus * minus= plus. Note: However you cannot give like –2. Because — operator can only be applied to variables as a decrement operator (eg., i–). 2 is a constant and not a variable.

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation.

C Aptitude 3
C program is one of most popular programming language which used for core level of coding across the board. Now a days C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program. Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 3.1

   main()
{
int i=-1,j=-1,k=0,l=2,m;
m=i++&&j++&&k++||l++;
printf("%d %d %d %d %d",i,j,k,l,m);
}

Answer: 0 0 1 3 1

Explanation:Logical operations always give a result of 1 or 0 . And also the logical AND (&&) operator has higher priority over the logical OR (||) operator. So the expression ‘i++ && j++ && k++’ is executed first. The result of this expression is 0 (-1 && -1 && 0 = 0). Now the expression is 0 || 2 which evaluates to 1 (because OR operator always gives 1 except for ‘0 || 0’ combination- for which it gives 0). So the value of m is 1. The values of other variables are also incremented by 1.

C aptitude 3.2

main()
{
char *p;
printf("%d %d ",sizeof(*p),sizeof(p));
}


Answer:12

Explanation:The sizeof() operator gives the number of bytes taken by its operand. P is a character pointer, which needs one byte for storing its value (a character). Hence sizeof(*p) gives a value of 1. Since it needs two bytes to store the address of the character pointer sizeof(p) gives 2.

C aptitude 3.3

  main()
{
int i=3;
switch(i)
{
default:printf("zero");
case 1: printf("one");
break;
case 2:printf("two");
break;
case 3: printf("three");
break;
}
}



Answer:three

Explanation: The default case can be placed anywhere inside the loop. It is executed only when all other cases doesn’t match.

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