C Aptitude: Endianness, Pointer Arithmetic

C Aptitude 31
In this episode we’ll learn learn more about Endianness, Pointer Arithmetic.

C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.


Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 31.1

  
main() {
int i = 258;
int *iPtr = &i;
printf("%d %d", *((char*)iPtr), *((char*)iPtr+1) );
}

Answer: 2 1

Explanation: The integer value 257 can be represented in binary as, 00000001 00000001. Remember that the INTEL machines are ‘small-endian’ machines. Small-endian means that the lower order bytes are stored in the higher memory addresses and the higher order bytes are stored in lower addresses. The integer value 258 is stored in memory as: 00000001 00000010.

C aptitude 31.2

main() {
int i=300;
char *ptr = &i;
*++ptr=2;
printf("%d",i);
}

Answer:556

Explanation:The integer value 300  in binary notation is: 00000001 00101100. It is  stored in memory (small-endian) as: 00101100 00000001. Result of the expression *++ptr = 2 makes the memory representation as: 00101100 00000010. So the integer corresponding to it  is  00000010 00101100 => 556.

C aptitude 31.3

main()
{
char * str = "hello";
char * ptr = str;
char least = 127;
while (*ptr++)
least = ((*ptr)<(least))?(*ptr):(least);
printf("%d", least);
}

Answer: 0
Explanation: After ‘ptr’ reaches the end of the string the value pointed by ‘str’ is ‘’. So the value of ‘str’ is less than that of ‘least’. So the value of ‘least’ finally is 0.

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C Program to implement bucket sort

Write C program to implement bucket sort.
The idea of Bucket Sort is to divide the interval [0, 1] into n equal-sized sub intervals, or buckets, and then distribute the n input numbers into the buckets. To produce the output, we simply sort the numbers in each bucket and then go through the buckets in order, listing elements in each.
Bucket sort runs in linear time when the input is drawn from a uniform distribution. Read more about C Programming Language .
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***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
void Bucket_Sort(int array[], int n)
{   
 int i, j;   
 int count[n];  
 for(i=0; i < n; i++)
 {   
  count[i] = 0;   
 }     
 for(i=0; i < n; i++)
 {    
  (count[array[i]])++; 
 }     
 for(i=0,j=0; i < n; i++)
 {   
  for(; count[i]>0;(count[i])--) 
  {       
   array[j++] = i; 
  }  
 }   
}    
int main() 
{ 
 int array[100];   
 int num;   
 int i;  
 printf("Enter How many Numbers : ");    
 scanf("%d",&num);    
 printf("Enter the %d elements to be sorted:n",num);  
 for(i = 0; i < num; i++ )
 {   
  scanf("%d",&array[i]);  
 }   
 printf("nThe array of elements before sorting : n"); 
 for (i = 0;i < num;i++) 
 {    
  printf("%d ", array[i]);   
 }    
 printf("nThe array of elements after sorting : n");  
 Bucket_Sort(array, num);  
 for (i = 0;i < n;i++) 
 {     
  printf("%d ", array[i]);  
 }   
 printf("n");      
 return 0; 
} 

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 29
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 29.1

  enum colors {BLACK,BLUE,GREEN}
main()
{

printf("%d..%d..%d",BLACK,BLUE,GREEN);

return(1);
}

Answer: 0..1..2

Explanation: enum assigns numbers starting from 0, if not explicitly defined.

C aptitude 29.2

   void main()
{
char far *farther,*farthest;

printf("%d..%d",sizeof(farther),sizeof(farthest));

}


Answer: 4..2

Explanation: The second pointer is of char type and not a far pointer

C aptitude 29.3

     main()
{
int i=400,j=300;
printf("%d..%d");
}

Answer: 400..300

Explanation: printf takes the values of the first two assignments of the program. Any number of printf’s may be given. All of them take only the first two.

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C Program to delete a file using remove function.

Write a C program to delete a specified file using remove function.
remove function deletes the specified file, where it takes file name as the argument and if file is successively deleted it returns 0 , other wise returns a non zero value.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

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***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
int main()
{
    char file_name[40];
    printf("Enter the file name with location:n Example, c:example.txtnn");
    gets(file_name);
    if(remove(file_name) != 0 )
    puts("Error deleting filenn");
    else
    puts("File successfully deletednn");
    return 0;
}
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C program without using main function

Write a C program without using main function.
In this program, we didn’t use the main function, but we are using the preprocessor directive #define with arguments to define the Main function.
A Preprocessor is program which processes the source code before compilation.
The ‘##‘ operator is called the token pasting or token merging operator. In the second line of program we used it to merges the 4th,1st,3rd & the 2nd characters(tokens), and it compiles as “msut”.
When the controller calls int begin, preprocessor replaces the macro “begin” with the expansion decode(a,n,i,m,a,t,e). As defined in the macro decode it merges the 4th,1st,3rd & the 2nd characters, and int begin becomes int main(), so program runs successfully. Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.
–>

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***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#define decode(s,t,u,m,p,e,d) m##s##u##t
#define begin decode(a,n,i,m,a,t,e)

int begin()

{
printf(” Ha HA see how it is?? “);
}
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C program to print given numbers as a pyramid

Write a C program to print given numbers as a pyramid.
In this program we use the simple for statements to produce the patterns.
This program prints the following output,
        1
      232
    34543
  4567654
567898765
 Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

–>

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***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>


void display(int start, char *str){

int i,j;


for(i=start; i<=(start+start); i++)

printf("%c",str[i]);

for(j=i-2;j>=start;j--)

printf("%c",str[j]);

}


main(){

char str[]="123456789";

int i, j;

for(i=0;i<5;i++){

display(i, str);

printf("n");

}

}
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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 26
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 26.1

 main( )
{
void *vp;
char ch = ‘g’, *cp = “goofy”;
int j = 20;
vp = &ch;
printf(“%c”, *(char *)vp);
vp = &j;
printf(“%d”,*(int *)vp);
vp = cp;
printf(“%s”,(char *)vp + 3);
}

Answer: g20fy

Explanation: Since a void pointer is used it can be type casted to any other type pointer. vp = &ch stores address of char ch and the next statement prints the value stored in vp after type casting it to the proper data type pointer. the output is ‘g’. Similarly the output from second printf is ‘20’. The third printf statement type casts it to print the string from the 4th value hence the output is ‘fy’.

C aptitude 26.2

   main ( )
{
static char *s[ ] = {“black”, “white”, “yellow”, “violet”};
char **ptr[ ] = {s+3, s+2, s+1, s}, ***p;
p = ptr;
**++p;
printf(“%s”,*--*++p + 3);
}

Answer: ck

Explanation:In this problem we have an array of char pointers pointing to start of 4 strings. Then we have ptr which is a pointer to a pointer of type char and a variable p which is a pointer to a pointer to a pointer of type char. p hold the initial value of ptr, i.e. p = s+3. The next statement increment value in p by 1 , thus now value of p = s+2. In the printf statement the expression is evaluated *++p causes gets value s+1 then the pre decrement is executed and we get s+1 – 1 = s . the indirection operator now gets the value from the array of s and adds 3 to the starting address. The string is printed starting from this position. Thus, the output is ‘ck’.

C aptitude 26.3

     
main()
{
int i, n;
char *x = “girl”;
n = strlen(x);
*x = x[n];
for(i=0; i < n; ++i)
{
printf(“%sn”,x);
x++;
}
}

Answer:
(blank space)
 irl
 rl
 l

  Explanation: Here a string (a pointer to char) is initialized with a value “girl”. The strlen function returns the length of the string, thus n has a value 4. The next statement assigns value at the nth location (‘’) to the first location. Now the string becomes “irl” . Now the printf statement prints the string after each iteration it increments it starting position. Loop starts from 0 to 4. The first time x[0] = ‘’ hence it prints nothing and pointer value is incremented. The second time it prints from x[1] i.e “irl” and the third time it prints “rl” and the last time it prints “l” and the loop terminates.

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C Aptitude Questions and answers with explanation

C Aptitude 24
C program is one of most popular programming language which is used for core level of coding across the board. C program is used for operating systems, embedded systems, system engineering, word processors,hard ware drivers, etc.

In this site, we have discussed various type of C programs till date and from now on, we will move further by looking at the C aptitude questions.

In the coming days, we will post C aptitude questions, answers and explanation for interview preparations.

The C aptitude questions and answers for those questions along with explanation for the interview related queries.

We hope that this questions and answers series on C program will help students and freshers who are looking for a job, and also programmers who are looking to update their aptitude on C program.
Some of the illustrated examples will be from the various companies, and IT industry experts.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

Predict the output or error(s) for the following:

C aptitude 24.1

  main()
{
printf("%x",-1<<4);
}


Answer: fff0

Explanation: -1 is internally represented as all 1’s. When left shifted four times the least significant 4 bits are filled with 0’s.The %x format specifier specifies that the integer value be printed as a hexadecimal value.

C aptitude 24.2

   main()
{
char string[]="Hello World";
display(string);
}
void display(char *string)
{
printf("%s",string);
}

Answer: Compiler Error : Type mismatch in redeclaration of function display

Explanation:In third line, when the function display is encountered, the compiler doesn’t know anything about the function display. It assumes the arguments and return types to be integers, (which is the default type). When it sees the actual function display, the arguments and type contradicts with what it has assumed previously. Hence a compile time error occurs.

C aptitude 24.3

      main()
{
int c=- -2;
printf("c=%d",c);
}

Answer:c=2

Explanation: Here unary minus (or negation) operator is used twice. Same maths rules applies, ie. minus * minus= plus.
Note: However you cannot give like –2. Because — operator can only be applied to variables as a decrement operator (eg., i–). 2 is a constant and not a variable.

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C program to hide the mouse pointers.

C program to hide the mouse pointers.
In this program, we hide the mouse pointers using graphics.h and dos.h library functions.
To use graphics.h, we have to install the drivers in to the the system by using the initgraph() function.
In this program,we also check the condition that mouse pointer is available or not. Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

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*
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***********************************************************/

#include<graphics.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<dos.h>

void showmouseptr();
void hidemouseptr();

union REGS i, o;

int main()
{
int count = 1, gd = DETECT, gm;

initgraph(&gd,&gm,"C:\TC\BGI");/*check your path, to install the drivers in to the the system*/

i.x.ax = 0;
int86(0X33,&i,&o);
if(o.x.ax == 0)
{
printf("nt Sorry! Mouse support not available !");
}
else
{
showmouseptr();

while(count<=10)
{
getch();
count++;
if(count%2==0)
hidemouseptr();
else
showmouseptr();
}
}

getch();
return 0;
}


void showmouseptr()
{
i.x.ax = 1;
int86(0X33,&i,&o);
}

void hidemouseptr()
{
i.x.ax = 2; // to hide mouse
int86(0X33,&i,&o);
}
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C Program to change the text colors.

Write a C Program to change the text colors.
In this program, we give the example of changing the text colors, background colors using conio.h library.
Syntax: void textcolor(int_color);
Here color is the integer variable, you can specify a color name also, but it should be a proper color name in capital letters.
Read more about C Programming Language . and read the C Programming Language (2nd Edition). by K and R.

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***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
int main()
{
clrscr();
textcolor(BLUE); // Change font colour to blue
textbackground(WHITE); //change the background colour to white
cprintf("Color is Blue with white backgroundnn");
clrscr();
textcolor(RED+BLINK);//this one is blinking the text
cprintf("Color is RED with blinkingnn");
return 0;
}
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