C Program implement Kruskal’s algorithm.

Write a C Program implement Kruskal’s algorithm.
Kruskal’s algorithm is a greedy algorithm that finds the minimum spanning tree of a graph. Graph should be weighted, connected, and undirected.Minimum spanning tree is a spanning tree with weight less than or equal to the weight of every other spanning tree. Read more about C Programming Language .

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***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
int i,j,k,a,b,u,v,n,ne=1;
int min,mincost=0,cost[9][9],parent[9];
int find(int);
int uni(int,int);
void main()
{
clrscr();
printf("nntImplementation of Kruskal's algorithmnn");
printf("nEnter the no. of verticesn");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("nEnter the cost adjacency matrixn");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
{
scanf("%d",&cost[i][j]);
if(cost[i][j]==0)
cost[i][j]=999;
}
}
printf("nThe edges of Minimum Cost Spanning Tree arenn");
while(ne<n)
{
for(i=1,min=999;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
{
if(cost[i][j]<min)
{
min=cost[i][j];
a=u=i;
b=v=j;
}
}
}
u=find(u);
v=find(v);
if(uni(u,v))
{
printf("n%d edge (%d,%d) =%dn",ne++,a,b,min);
mincost +=min;
}
cost[a][b]=cost[b][a]=999;
}
printf("ntMinimum cost = %dn",mincost);
getch();
}
int find(int i)
{
while(parent[i])
i=parent[i];
return i;
}
int uni(int i,int j)
{
if(i!=j)
{
parent[j]=i;
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
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C Program to implement Warshall’s Algorithm

Data structures using C, Here we solve the Warshall’s algorithm using C Programming Language. Warshall’s algorithm enables to compute the transitive closure of the adjacency matrix of any digraph.

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***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<math.h>
int max(int,int);
void warshal(int p[10][10],int n)
{
int i,j,k;
for(k=1;k<=n;k++)
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
p[i][j]=max(p[i][j],p[i][k]&&p[k][j]);
}
int max(int a,int b)
{ ;
if(a>b)
return(a);
else
return(b);
}
void main()
{
int p[10][10]={0},n,e,u,v,i,j;
clrscr();
printf("n Enter the number of vertices:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("n Enter the number of edges:");
scanf("%d",&e);
for(i=1;i<=e;i++)
{
printf("n Enter the end vertices of edge %d:",i);
scanf("%d%d",&u,&v);
p[u][v]=1;
}
printf("n Matrix of input data: n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
printf("%dt",p[i][j]);
printf("n");
}
warshal(p,n);
printf("n Transitive closure: n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
printf("%dt",p[i][j]);
printf("n");
}
getch();
}
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C Program to implement Floyd’s Algorithm

Data structures using C, Here we solve the Floyd’s algorithm using C Programming Language. Floyd’s algorithm uses to find the least-expensive paths between all the vertices in a Graph.

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*
* Happy Coding
***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
int min(int,int);
void floyds(int p[10][10],int n)
{
int i,j,k;
for(k=1;k<=n;k++)
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
if(i==j)
p[i][j]=0;
else
p[i][j]=min(p[i][j],p[i][k]+p[k][j]);
}
int min(int a,int b)
{
if(a<b)
return(a);
else
return(b);
}
void main()
{
int p[10][10],w,n,e,u,v,i,j;;
clrscr();
printf("n Enter the number of vertices:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("n Enter the number of edges:n");
scanf("%d",&e);
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
p[i][j]=999;
}
for(i=1;i<=e;i++)
{
printf("n Enter the end vertices of edge%d with its weight n",i);
scanf("%d%d%d",&u,&v,&w);
p[u][v]=w;
}
printf("n Matrix of input data:n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
printf("%d t",p[i][j]);
printf("n");
}
floyds(p,n);
printf("n Transitive closure:n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
printf("%d t",p[i][j]);
printf("n");
}
printf("n The shortest paths are:n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
{
if(i!=j)
printf("n <%d,%d>=%d",i,j,p[i][j]);
}
getch();
}
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C Program to solve N Queen’s problem

N Queen’s problem is the puzzle. Placing chess queens on a chessboard, so thatNo two queens attack each other. Here we use the Brute-Force method to solve the problem.Read more about C Programming Language .

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* programs for commercial purposes,
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*
* Happy Coding
***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<math.h>
int a[30],count=0;
int place(int pos)
{
int i;
for(i=1;i<pos;i++)
{
if((a[i]==a[pos])||((abs(a[i]-a[pos])==abs(i-pos))))
return 0;
}
return 1;
}
void print_sol(int n)
{
int i,j;
count++;
printf("nnSolution #%d:n",count);
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
{
if(a[i]==j)
printf("Qt");
else
printf("*t");
}
printf("n");
}
}
void queen(int n)
{
int k=1;
a[k]=0;
while(k!=0)
{
a[k]=a[k]+1;
while((a[k]<=n)&&!place(k))
a[k]++;
if(a[k]<=n)
{
if(k==n)
print_sol(n);
else
{
k++;
a[k]=0;
}
}
else
k--;
}
}
void main()
{
int i,n;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the number of Queensn");
scanf("%d",&n);
queen(n);
printf("nTotal solutions=%d",count);
getch();
}
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C Program to find a minimum spanning tree using Prim’s algorithm

C Program to implement the Prim’s algorithm. Prims algorithm is a greedy algorithm that finds the minimum spanning tree of a graph. Graph should be weighted, connected, and undirected. Read more about C Programming Language .

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* for personal and learning purposes. For permissions to use the
* programs for commercial purposes,
* contact info@c-program-example.com
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* and browse!
*
* Happy Coding
***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
int a,b,u,v,n,i,j,ne=1;
int visited[10]={0},min,mincost=0,cost[10][10];
void main()
{
clrscr();
printf("n Enter the number of nodes:");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("n Enter the adjacency matrix:n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
{
scanf("%d",&cost[i][j]);
if(cost[i][j]==0)
cost[i][j]=999;
}
visited[1]=1;
printf("n");
while(ne<n)
{
for(i=1,min=999;i<=n;i++)
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
if(cost[i][j]<min)
if(visited[i]!=0)
{
min=cost[i][j];
a=u=i;
b=v=j;
}
if(visited[u]==0 || visited[v]==0)
{
printf("n Edge %d:(%d %d) cost:%d",ne++,a,b,min);
mincost+=min;
visited[b]=1;
}
cost[a][b]=cost[b][a]=999;
}
printf("n Minimun cost=%d",mincost);
getch();
}
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C Program to search the perticulur pattern in the string using Horspool method.

C Program to find the substring in a String using the Horspool method. This algorithm uses the Brute-Forse method which searches the text between 0 and n-m, and after each cycle it shifts the pattern by one position to the right. Read more about C Programming Language .

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*
* Happy Coding
***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define MAX 500
int t[MAX];
void shifttable(char p[])
{
int i,j,m;
m=strlen(p);
for(i=0;i<MAX;i++)
t[i]=m;
for(j=0;j<m-1;j++)
t[p[j]]=m-1-j;
}
int horspool(char src[],char p[])
{
int i,j,k,m,n;
n=strlen(src);
m=strlen(p);
printf("nLength of text=%d",n);
printf("n Length of pattern=%d",m);
i=m-1;
while(i<n)
{
k=0;
while((k<m)&&(p[m-1-k]==src[i-k]))
k++;
if(k==m)
return(i-m+1);
else
i+=t[src[i]];
}
return -1;
}
void main()
{
char src[100],p[100];
int pos;
clrscr();
printf("Enter the text in which pattern is to be searched:n");
gets(src);
printf("Enter the pattern to be searched:n");
gets(p);
shifttable(p);
pos=horspool(src,p);
if(pos>=0)
printf("n The desired pattern was found starting from position %d",pos+1);
else
printf("n The pattern was not found in the given textn");
getch();
}
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C Program to find Binomial Coefficients

C Program to find Binomial Integers without using recursion. Binomial coefficients are positive integers that are coefficient of any term in the expansion of (x + a) the number of combination’s of a specified size that can be drawn from a given set. Read more about C Programming Language .

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* contact info@c-program-example.com
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* and browse!
*
* Happy Coding
***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
void main() {
int i, j, n, k, min, c[20][20]={0};
printf("\n Enter the value of n: ");
scanf("%d", &n);
printf("\n Enter the value of k: ");
scanf("%d", &k);
if(n >= k) {
for(i=0; i<=n; i++) {
min = i<k? i:k;
for(j = 0; j <= min; j++) {
if(j==0 || j == i) {
c[i][j] = 1;
} else {
c[i][j] = c[i-1][j-1] + a[i-1][j];
}
}
}
printf("%d\t",c[i][j]);
printf("\n");
} else {
printf("\n Invalid input \n Enter value n>=k \n");
}
}
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C program to create a subsets using backtracking method.

C Program to find the subsets in the set. We use the backtracking method to solve this problem. Backtracking is the refinement method of Brute-Force method. Backtrack method means it finds the number of sub solutions and each may have number of sub divisions, and solution chosen for exactly one. Backtracking method is a recursive method. Read more about C Programming Language .

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* contact info@c-program-example.com
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* and browse!
*
* Happy Coding
***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#define TRUE 1
#define FALSE 0
int inc[50],w[50],sum,n;
int promising(int i,int wt,int total)
{
return(((wt+total)>=sum)&&((wt==sum)||(wt+w[i+1]<=sum)));
}
/*
* You can find this program on GitHub
* https://github.com/snadahalli/cprograms/blob/master/subsets.c
*/
void main()
{
int i,j,n,temp,total=0;
clrscr();
printf("n Enter how many numbers:n");
scanf("%d",&n);
printf("n Enter %d numbers to th set:n",n);
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&w[i]);
total+=w[i];
}
printf("n Input the sum value to create sub set:n");
scanf("%d",&sum);
for(i=0;i<=n;i++)
for(j=0;j<n-1;j++)
if(w[j]>w[j+1])
{
temp=w[j];
w[j]=w[j+1];
w[j+1]=temp;
}
printf("n The given %d numbers in ascending order:n",n);
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
printf("%d t",w[i]);
if((total<sum))
printf("n Subset construction is not possible");
else
{
for(i=0;i<n;i++)
inc[i]=0;
printf("n The solution using backtracking is:n");
sumset(-1,0,total);
}
getch();
}
void sumset(int i,int wt,int total)
{
int j;
if(promising(i,wt,total))
{
if(wt==sum)
{
printf("n{t");
for(j=0;j<=i;j++)
if(inc[j])
printf("%dt",w[j]);
printf("}n");
}
else
{
inc[i+1]=TRUE;
sumset(i+1,wt+w[i+1],total-w[i+1]);
inc[i+1]=FALSE;
sumset(i+1,wt,total-w[i+1]);
}
}
}
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C program to implement Depth First Search(DFS)

C program to implement Depth First Search(DFS). Depth First Search is an algorithm used to search the Tree or Graph. DFS search starts from root node then traversal into left child node and continues, if item found it stops other wise it continues. The advantage of DFS is it requires less memory compare to Breadth First Search(BFS).Read more about C Programming Language .

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* programs for commercial purposes,
* contact info@c-program-example.com
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* and browse!
*
* Happy Coding
***********************************************************/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
int a[20][20],reach[20],n;
void dfs(int v)
{
int i;
reach[v]=1;
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
if(a[v][i] && !reach[i])
{
printf("n %d->%d",v,i);
dfs(i);
}
}
void main()
{
int i,j,count=0;
clrscr();
printf("n Enter number of vertices:");
scanf("%d",&n);
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
reach[i]=0;
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
a[i][j]=0;
}
printf("n Enter the adjacency matrix:n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
for(j=1;j<=n;j++)
scanf("%d",&a[i][j]);
dfs(1);
printf("n");
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
{
if(reach[i])
count++;
}
if(count==n)
printf("n Graph is connected");
else
printf("n Graph is not connected");
getch();
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Breadth First Search (BFS) in C

Breadth First Search/Traversal

C program to implement Breadth First Search(BFS). Breadth First Search is an algorithm used to search a Tree or Graph. BFS search starts from root node then traverses into next level of graph or tree, if item found it stops other wise it continues with other nodes in the same level before moving on to the next level. The algorithm can also be used for just Tree/Graph traversal, without actually searching for a value. This is what being done in the program below. The disadvantage of BFS is it requires more memory compare to Depth First Search(DFS).

The Program

#include<stdio.h>
int a[20][20], q[20], visited[20], n, i, j, f = 0, r = -1;
void bfs(int v) {
for(i = 1; i <= n; i++)
if(a[v][i] && !visited[i])
q[++r] = i;
if(f <= r) {
visited[q[f]] = 1;
bfs(q[f++]);
}
}
void main() {
int v;
printf("\n Enter the number of vertices:");
scanf("%d", &n);
for(i=1; i <= n; i++) {
q[i] = 0;
visited[i] = 0;
}
printf("\n Enter graph data in matrix form:\n");
for(i=1; i<=n; i++) {
for(j=1;j<=n;j++) {
scanf("%d", &a[i][j]);
}
}
printf("\n Enter the starting vertex:");
scanf("%d", &v);
bfs(v);
printf("\n The node which are reachable are:\n");
for(i=1; i <= n; i++) {
if(visited[i])
printf("%d\t", i);
else {
printf("\n Bfs is not possible. Not all nodes are reachable");
break;
}
}
}
view raw bfs.c hosted with ❤ by GitHub

Sample Output

BFS in C

The graph’s matrix representation is used as input to our program. A value of 1 at [i][j] represents presence of a path from i to j. 0 represents no path.

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